Photo
ifuckingloveminerals:

Vanadinite, Galena, Quartz

The vanadinite has the brilliant red color in this shot, the Galena (lead sulfide) is the darker cubes, and the quartz is the needle-like, colorless mineral towards the bottom.

ifuckingloveminerals:

Vanadinite, Galena, Quartz

The vanadinite has the brilliant red color in this shot, the Galena (lead sulfide) is the darker cubes, and the quartz is the needle-like, colorless mineral towards the bottom.

Video

I’m doing the Grand Canyon’s geology, so here’s a cool view at some of the geology of the nearby Sedona, Arizona area.

Photo
Rose quartz starRose quartz is the massive (ie it only rarely produces crystals with the usual hexagonal form, seehttp://tinyurl.com/nfbycoc for a stunning example of the latter) pink form of quartz. It is usually translucent rather than transparent. Rose quartz forms at high temperatures in pegmatites, those last fluid and element rich crystal mushes that are the last parts of granite to crystallise and form so many of the world’s gems. It grows in the phase known as pneumatolytic, meaning it crystallises directly from the hot steam rich gaseous phase as opposed to water rich fluid phases.After much heated debate over the decades, it seems that the small fibres of a mineral similar to dumortierite are responsible for both the lovely pink colour and the occasional asterisms that some specimens display.The star need a strong point like source to display it, and it sometimes also visible in transmitted light shone directly through the stone, a rarity in asterism. They are accaused by reflection from minute needle shaped crystals that have congealed according to the hexagonal shape in which quartz crystallises with 3 axes looking down the length of the crystal intersecting at 60 degrees. Such rough is usually polished into spheres, and only occurs in few locations such as the pegmatites of the Vorondolo mountains near Antsirabe in Madagascar, that scion of what i term the gemlands (seehttp://tinyurl.com/k6464q6 for an explanation of this fantastic zone spread through Africa, India, Sri Lanka and Antarctica that marks the uniting of Gondwana way back in deeptime).An additional optical effect comes from the interaction of reflection and refraction (the bending of light as it enters an optical medium of different density such as from air to mineral) that makes the star appear in slightly different places for each eye, giving the illusion of the star hovering above the stone.This wonderful 12 rayed example resides in the Smithsonian gem collection.LozImage credit: Chip Clarkhttp://www.quartzpage.de/rose.htmlhttp://www.minerals.net/gemstone/rose_quartz_gemstone.aspxhttp://www.galleries.com/Rose_quartzhttp://minerals.gps.caltech.edu/ge114/lecture_topics/quartz/index.htm

Rose quartz star

Rose quartz is the massive (ie it only rarely produces crystals with the usual hexagonal form, seehttp://tinyurl.com/nfbycoc for a stunning example of the latter) pink form of quartz. It is usually translucent rather than transparent. Rose quartz forms at high temperatures in pegmatites, those last fluid and element rich crystal mushes that are the last parts of granite to crystallise and form so many of the world’s gems. It grows in the phase known as pneumatolytic, meaning it crystallises directly from the hot steam rich gaseous phase as opposed to water rich fluid phases.

After much heated debate over the decades, it seems that the small fibres of a mineral similar to dumortierite are responsible for both the lovely pink colour and the occasional asterisms that some specimens display.

The star need a strong point like source to display it, and it sometimes also visible in transmitted light shone directly through the stone, a rarity in asterism. They are accaused by reflection from minute needle shaped crystals that have congealed according to the hexagonal shape in which quartz crystallises with 3 axes looking down the length of the crystal intersecting at 60 degrees. 

Such rough is usually polished into spheres, and only occurs in few locations such as the pegmatites of the Vorondolo mountains near Antsirabe in Madagascar, that scion of what i term the gemlands (seehttp://tinyurl.com/k6464q6 for an explanation of this fantastic zone spread through Africa, India, Sri Lanka and Antarctica that marks the uniting of Gondwana way back in deeptime).

An additional optical effect comes from the interaction of reflection and refraction (the bending of light as it enters an optical medium of different density such as from air to mineral) that makes the star appear in slightly different places for each eye, giving the illusion of the star hovering above the stone.

This wonderful 12 rayed example resides in the Smithsonian gem collection.

Loz

Image credit: Chip Clark

http://www.quartzpage.de/rose.html
http://www.minerals.net/gemstone/rose_quartz_gemstone.aspx
http://www.galleries.com/Rose_quartz
http://minerals.gps.caltech.edu/ge114/lecture_topics/quartz/index.htm

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roadkillandcrows:

Went to this amazing fossil shop today.

roadkillandcrows:

Went to this amazing fossil shop today.

Photoset

The Cardenas Basalt

The last several units in the Grand Canyon have been sedimentary rocks. These sandstones and shales were deposited in basins created as normal faults grew in the area that would one day be the Grand Canyon. On top of the Dox formation, and occasionally even penetrating some of the lower rocks we suddenly find a different rock type: the Cardenas basalt.

The Cardenas is the black unit seen in this image from Cardenas creek. This is an igneous rock, produced by a series of volcanic eruptions around 1.1 billion years ago. Because it is an igneous rock it can be well dated and modern techniques uniformly give that age. The stratigraphy suggests a rapid outpouring of lava started in this area at the end of the Dox formation.

There are locations in the upper portion of the Dox suggestive of interactions between basalt and the sediments; sediments that were pushed around or altered by the heat of the lava on top, so the lava must have come in at the end of deposition of the Dox formation.

The Cardenas basalt is thick when it is found in the canyon: up to 300 meters thick. This thickness implies that the location where it erupted is somewhere very near the canyon as deposits of lava usually become thinner the farther from their source they are. 

The Cardenas formation has 2 members; an upper and lower portion. The lower portion is represented by olivine rich basalts that have textures like Pahoehoe found within. The upper unit is slightly higher in silica, reaching andesite compositions. The dikes, as seen here, of magma that intrude the lower sediments match the Cardenas lavas in composition, indicating that they have a similar source.

At about this time, 1.1 billion years ago, vast outpourings of lava are found in rocks of the Grand Canyon, Death Valley, and far to the north in Montana’s Belt basin. This continent-wide outpouring of lava probably helps indicate its cause. Some scientists have suggested that the lavas could have been produced by a large mantle plume rising beneath western Laurentia, with its eruption made easier by the rifting processes.

The Grand Canyon Supergroup sediments were deposited in rift basins associated with normal faults and crustal extension. The same processes were occurring far to the north in the Belt Basin and in Death Valley at the same time. Crustal extension can allow the Earth’s mantle to rise towards the surface and begin melting. The presence of basalts in these basins associated with rifting and normal faulting therefore suggests that the lavas erupted as part of the continent was pulled apart or even rifted away, and the same forces which created the basins that the sediments collected in also gave rise to the Cardenas basalt.

-JBB

Image credits: https://www.flickr.com/photos/grand_canyon_nps/5477460388 
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f9/Grand_Canyon_Supergroup_with_basalt_dike_in_Hakatai_Shale.JPG 
(Creative commons licensed)

Read more:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0301926894901082#

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June 2014: The hottest June ever recorded.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have announced that according to the latest global temperature readings, June 14’ is a record breaker: the hottest June ever recorded. Not only has it won first place, it is the 38th consecutive June with a global temperature above the 20th century average.
So what figures are we dealing with here? NOAA focuses on three main temperature readings: Land temperature, Ocean temperature and an amalgamation of the two, Land & Ocean temperature. The results for June are as follows:

•The global land surface temperature was 0.95°C (1.71°F) above the 20th century average of 13.3°C (55.9°F), the seventh highest for June on record.
•For the ocean, the June global sea surface temperature was 0.64°C (1.15°F) above the 20th century average of 16.4°C (61.5°F), the highest for June on record and the highest departure from average for any month.
•The combined average temperature over global land and ocean surfaces for June 2014 was the highest on record for the month, at 0.72°C (1.30°F) above the 20th century average of 15.5°C (59.9°F).
The ocean temperature was a particularly astonishing record; marking the first time that the monthly global ocean temperature anomaly was higher than 0.60°C (1.08°F). Notably, large parts of the western equatorial and north-eastern Pacific Ocean and nearly all of the Indian Ocean were record warm or much warmer than average for the month and this is with neither El Niño nor La Niña conditions present during June 2014.
Aside from being the hottest June on record, it was also the 352nd consecutive month with a global temperature above the 20th century average. The trend to a warmer world is now incontestable. The last month with below-average temperatures was February 1985.
29 years ago and counting….
-Jean
Image courtesy of NOAA.
See more here: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/national/2014/6

June 2014: The hottest June ever recorded.

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have announced that according to the latest global temperature readings, June 14’ is a record breaker: the hottest June ever recorded. Not only has it won first place, it is the 38th consecutive June with a global temperature above the 20th century average.

So what figures are we dealing with here? NOAA focuses on three main temperature readings: Land temperature, Ocean temperature and an amalgamation of the two, Land & Ocean temperature. The results for June are as follows:

•The global land surface temperature was 0.95°C (1.71°F) above the 20th century average of 13.3°C (55.9°F), the seventh highest for June on record.

•For the ocean, the June global sea surface temperature was 0.64°C (1.15°F) above the 20th century average of 16.4°C (61.5°F), the highest for June on record and the highest departure from average for any month.

•The combined average temperature over global land and ocean surfaces for June 2014 was the highest on record for the month, at 0.72°C (1.30°F) above the 20th century average of 15.5°C (59.9°F).

The ocean temperature was a particularly astonishing record; marking the first time that the monthly global ocean temperature anomaly was higher than 0.60°C (1.08°F). Notably, large parts of the western equatorial and north-eastern Pacific Ocean and nearly all of the Indian Ocean were record warm or much warmer than average for the month and this is with neither El Niño nor La Niña conditions present during June 2014.

Aside from being the hottest June on record, it was also the 352nd consecutive month with a global temperature above the 20th century average. The trend to a warmer world is now incontestable. The last month with below-average temperatures was February 1985.

29 years ago and counting….

-Jean

Image courtesy of NOAA.

See more here: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/national/2014/6

Photo
Stormy Sea in the sky. This image is great. Taken amidst a storm in North Licoln, Nebraska, the clouds look incredibly like a stormy sea with waves peaking and tumbling.The photographer, who original posted this on Reddit, assures us that the photo is not HDR and that he imported the RAW image into Lightroom, boosting only clarity and contrast.Jean Image courtesy of jebleez on reddit (http://www.reddit.com/r/pics/comments/2a4czo/the_clouds_were_like_a_rolling_ocean_tonight/cirleia)

Stormy Sea in the sky. 

This image is great. Taken amidst a storm in North Licoln, Nebraska, the clouds look incredibly like a stormy sea with waves peaking and tumbling.

The photographer, who original posted this on Reddit, assures us that the photo is not HDR and that he imported the RAW image into Lightroom, boosting only clarity and contrast.

Jean 

Image courtesy of jebleez on reddit (http://www.reddit.com/r/pics/comments/2a4czo/the_clouds_were_like_a_rolling_ocean_tonight/cirleia)

Photo
This is “Beachy Head”; a prominent chalk headland located between Eastbourne and Birling Gap on the south coast of England.It is the highest chalk headland in Great Britain being 162 metres at its highest point above sea level. The cliffs were formed over a period of 30 million years; between 95 to 65 million years ago when a sub-tropical sea covered the area.The shells of billions of microscopic planktonic algae formed a deposit which eventually hardened into layers of white rock a thousand feet thick. This has since been uplifted due to continental movement and subsequent erosion has created what is seen today.Beautiful!-JeanPhoto courtesy of Rhys Davies.

This is “Beachy Head”; a prominent chalk headland located between Eastbourne and Birling Gap on the south coast of England.

It is the highest chalk headland in Great Britain being 162 metres at its highest point above sea level. 

The cliffs were formed over a period of 30 million years; between 95 to 65 million years ago when a sub-tropical sea covered the area.

The shells of billions of microscopic planktonic algae formed a deposit which eventually hardened into layers of white rock a thousand feet thick. This has since been uplifted due to continental movement and subsequent erosion has created what is seen today.

Beautiful!

-Jean

Photo courtesy of Rhys Davies.

Photoset

That last post where I shared video of a swarm of mayflies so big it appeared on radar? The Weather Service shared some photos of what it looked like on the ground.

More here.

Video

This is pretty amazing. This video shows weather radar capturing a massive emergence of mayflies in the Mississippi River Valley on July 20, 2014.

Credit: NOAA